Atomic structure analyses using X-ray diffraction (XRD)

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is one of the most important analytical techniques for identifying and studying phases, compounds etc in all crystalline solids. The lab has access to a very modern XRD equipment (right). By suitable calibration, it can also be used to quantify the percentage content of the various phases present and to identify unknown materials.

In addition, XRD, suitably adapted can be used to study reaction kinetics and the evolution of reactions for the synthesis of various materials, especially meta-stable intermediate phases as occur in methods such as SHS, as shown in the sequence of spectra below.

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gas mixtures by Gas Chromatography

Gas (and liquid) chromatography is used for identifying the various components in gaseous and liquid mixtures. The technique exploits the phenomenon of different flow speeds of gases through a porous medium inside columns resulting in the gradual separation oif the gases with a spacing dependent on their delay through the column, as shown in the spectrum below. The laboratory has a DANI GC (right) and offers services such as identification and recognition of a range of gases and liquids.